The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock economy worldwide. The NVJ serves the above objectives through the following channels: Provide veterinarians in Nigeria and other parts of the world with up-to-date scientific information in all aspects of veterinary sciences. These include review articles on topical issues on animals in health and disease; clinical and non-clinical articles. Provide a powerful mechanism for veterinarians in the private and public service, academics, researchers, and scientists directly/indirectly involved in the livestock industry to document their observations and publish research results of studies in all areas of animal health, animal production and public health.